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How Leadership Principles Can Relieve Trauma

Posted April 30, 2020

"One of the key assertions of trauma-informed education is that a stressed brain can't learn. This claim is backed by compelling brain research, which tells us what happens to our cognitive functioning when we sense danger."  [ASCD Express, April 9, 2020]


Posted February 5, 2020

Issue #5.3 is available.

HEARSAY is a newsletter for school professionals in Arkansas who are educating students who are deaf/hard of hearing (D/HOH). Each issue will include information, resources, and tips for working with this unique student population. We’d love to hear from you and address topics you suggest.

The Importance of Soft Skills for Professional Success

Posted December 9, 2019

"Sure, you can remediate /r/ or help move a patient off a modified diet with the best of them—but how do your clients, coworkers, supervisors, and supervisees view you? Do they trust you and seek your advice? Do they enjoy being around you? Do they see you as someone who can roll with the punches?" [ASHA Leader Live, May 28, 2019]

What's So Hard About Soft Skills?

Posted December 9, 2019

"When they enter the work world, our former students can no longer count on IEP support. To succeed, they need “soft skills.” And we can help students cultivate them" [ASHA Wire, December 1, 2019].

Vocational Skills for Students with Communication Disorders

Posted December 9, 2019

"We constantly communicate while we’re at work. We greet co-workers on the way into work. We chat at lunch with people about our favorite shows and weekend plans. Communication in the workplace, no matter how short or how long, is an essential part of how we’re perceived and how we participate as a professional team member. It’s an example of a “soft skill” that contributes to job success" [ASHA Leader Live, December 4, 2019].

Early Word Immersion for Children Who'd Otherwise Lack It

Posted December 3, 2019

"SLPs’ expanded presence in kindergarten classrooms bolsters language enrichment in a high-poverty school district" [ASHA Leader, September 2019].

7 Tips to Encourage Preliteracy Skills in Preschoolers

Posted December 3, 2019

"All SLPs can identify at least one child who immediately gets up and runs away as soon as they see a storybook come out. As we head into the hectic holiday season, it can spark your students’ interest—and help us stay motivated until the break—to try something easy and new. These seven strategies work well for me to encourage preliteracy skills in the preschool population" [ASHA Leader Blog, November 27, 2019].

Service Delivery for Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Evidence for the Quick Articulation Model

Posted December 3, 2019

"Clinical Question: Would a school-age child with speech sound disorder (SSD) benefit more from individual drill therapy (Quick Articulation!) or traditional school-based group therapy as measured by improved speech accuracy?" [EBP Briefs, November 2019].

Wh-Question Intervention for Children with Language Disorders

Posted December 3, 2019

Learning Objectives

After this course, readers will be able to:

-Identify the clinical question for an example case scenario

-List relevant search criteria for retrieving evidence related to the clinical question

-Identify factors to consider when evaluating the evidence

-Describe a clinical decision based on the evidence analysis

[EBP Briefs, November 2019]

SLP Teaches Her Dog to Use a Soundboard

Posted December 2, 2019

"Christina Hunger, 26, is a speech-language pathologist in San Diego, California who believes that 'everyone deserves a voice.' Hunger works with one- and two-year-old children, many of which use adaptive devices to communicate. So she wondered what would happen if she taught her two-month-old puppy, a Catahoula/Blue Heeler named Stella, to do the same" [Upworthy, September 2019].

Insights and Tips for My Fellow Introverted SLPs

Posted November 18, 2019

"As a speech-language pathologist, you talk to patients and their caregivers, to colleagues, and to collaborators, and then you talk to yourself while making notes on the all previously listed interactions.  Therefore, you’d think an extrovert would be the ideal personality for the job.  After all, SLPs devote their careers to promoting better communication, so they must enjoy communicating, right?  Not always.  As it turns out, a special and not-so-rare species of introverted SLPs quietly works in the profession."  [ASHA Leader Live, November 18, 2019]

Teaching Older Students Pragmatic Skills for Social Media Use

Posted November 14, 2019

"When speech-language pathologists work with middle and high school students, we can focus our services more on real-life topics—both in addressing academic skills and social interactions. Students at this level also tend to take more ownership of their sessions by recognizing areas needing more attention, helping set goals, and identifying strategies that work best for them."  [ASHA Leader Live, November 13, 2019]

Voice and Communication Support for Youth Who Are Transgender: Are You Ready?

Posted November 14, 2019

"As more of our students choose to live out their authentic gender expression, school-based speech-language pathologists can play a role in supporting and serving them. Some SLPs already work with students on their caseload to align their voice and communication with their gender identity and expression."  [ASHA Leader Live, November 11, 2019]

Posted October 15, 2019

Speech-language pathologists and audiologists are used to making a difference. We help our patients, clients, students, and families achieve their communication and hearing goals, and we know our work results in positive, lasting effects on their lives.  Given the growing concern over climate change, single-use plastics, water shortages, and other environmental problems, many of us also want to make a difference for the planet.  [ASHA Leader Live, October 15, 2019]

Posted August 12, 2019

Mindfulness-based meditation is now firmly established as a valid stress-reduction tool backed by a growing body of solid science illuminating its effects on the brain, behavior, and health. It is being applied to an ever-growing list of life situations and disorders, from keeping kindergartners calm and boosting job satisfaction to overcoming depression and back pain.  [Dana Foundation, May 30, 2019]

Posted August 12, 2019

Neuroaesthetics is a new and rapidly expanding field of research that is aimed at the intersection of psychological aesthetics, biological mechanisms, and human evolution. Our author, a force in facilitating research and practice in this young and exciting field, tells us how music, art, theater, dance, literature, landscape, and media have the power to help treat any number of disorders and improve one’s quality of life.  [Cerebrum, July 11, 2019]

Posted July 22, 2019

Why are otherwise smart, savvy young people notoriously prone to unwise, often impulsive actions that put themselves and others at risk? The question has engaged a broad range of research from which a complex, nuanced picture is emerging.  [Dana Foundation, July 10, 2019]

Posted July 3, 2019

Editor’s Note: Brain-machine interface—once the stuff of science fiction novels—is coming to a computer near you. The only question is: How soon? While the technology is in its infancy, it is already helping people with spinal cord injuries. Our authors examine its potential to be the ultimate game changer for any number of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as on behavior, learning, and memory. They take the temperature of where the technology is, where it is going, and the inevitable ethical and regulatory implications.  [Cerebrum, June 5, 2019]

Out of Left Field: New Insights into Where Language Understanding Resides in the Brain

Posted June 6, 2019

More than 150 years ago, Paul Broca, a French physician, turned common wisdom regarding brain function on its head when he presented a unique patient case to the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, a leading scientific society. At the time, many believed that the brain produced thought, emotion, and action in a holistic manner—that is, the entire organ was required for any and all of these functions. But after Broca described the autopsy results of an epileptic patient named Monsieur Leborgne, who, while still living, was only able to produce the word “tan,” he argued that speech function was localized to an area in the left frontal lobe. First year psychology students now know this small region as “Broca’s area,” or the cortex’s speech center, and that patient by the only word he was able to utter, “Tan.” In the decades to follow, other patient cases and neuroscientific investigations suggested that language, from speech production to grammatical understanding, largely resided in the left hemisphere of the brain. But now, a new study from New York University School of Medicine suggests that language processing may be less lateralized than once thought.  [Dana Foundation, June 5, 2019]

Posted April 10, 2019

“As you go about your day, you may barely notice that you are frequently multitasking. It may be driving to work while listening to a radio program or talking to a loved one on the phone (putting yourself and others at risk), or perusing Facebook while texting a friend, or switching back and forth between a high-level project like compiling a report and a routine chore like scheduling an appointment. Multitasking means trying to perform two or more tasks concurrently, which typically leads to repeatedly switching between tasks (i.e., task switching) or leaving one task unfinished in order to do another.  The scientific study of multitasking over the past few decades has revealed important principles about the operations, and processing limitations, of our minds and brains” [Cerebrum, April 5, 2019].

Why Forgetting May Make Your Mind More Efficient

Posted January 31, 2019

"Traditionally, forgetting has been regarded as a passive decay over time of the information recorded and stored in the brain. But while some memories may simply fade away like ink on paper exposed to sunlight, recent research suggests that forgetting is often more intentional, with erasure orchestrated by elaborate cellular and molecular mechanisms. And forgetfulness is not necessarily a sign of a faulty memory. “In fact,” Wimber says, “it’s been shown over and over in computational models and also in animal work that an intelligent memory system needs forgetting.”"  [Knowable Magazine, January 14, 2018]

Posted January 15, 2019

"While the human brain is hardwired to feel pleasure for basic survival necessities, such as eating and sex, music—although obviously pleasurable—doesn’t offer the same evolutionary advantages. So why do we respond to patterns of sounds that disappear in an instant? Why do we belt music from the top of our lungs, learn to play instruments, and empty our bank accounts to see Bruce Springsteen on Broadway?"  [Robert Zatorre, Cerebrum, December 28, 2018]

New Glasses Technology Allows the Blind to ‘See’ Their Surroundings

Posted August 30, 2018

New technology allows the blind and visually impaired to experience the world around them and regain their independence. The wearer can read newspapers, books, signs, labels on consumer products, identify currency and even read text on a computer or smartphone screen anytime and anywhere. Another comes equipped with facial recognition capabilities, allowing the wearer to identify friends and family.  [Electronics360, August 27, 2018]

How Does the Brain Learn Categorization for Sounds? The Same Way It Does for Images.

Posted May 9, 2018

"Categorization, or the recognition that individual objects share similarities and can be grouped together, is fundamental to how we make sense of the world. Previous research has revealed how the brain categorizes images. Now, researchers funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) have discovered that the brain categorizes sounds in much the same way."  [National Science Foundation, News Release, April 18, 2018]

Medicaid Helps Schools Help Children

Posted September 26, 2017

"Medicaid provides affordable and comprehensive health coverage to over 30 million children, improving their health and their families’ financial well-being. In addition to the immediate health and financial benefits that Medicaid provides, children covered by Medicaid experience long-term health and economic gains as adults. Many children receive Medicaid-covered health care not only at the doctor’s office, but also often at school."   [Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, April 18, 2017]


New issue posted May 17, 2016

6 Underground Apps Students Hide from Schools

Posted April 19, 2017

"Educators and parents should keep these apps, which aren't always used for the best intentions, on their radar.  Technology is nearly ubiquitous in classrooms, and it holds extreme importance in the lives of today’s children.  But with technology comes responsibility, and many ed-tech stakeholders emphasize the importance of teaching students about digital citizenship, being aware of their digital footprint, and being responsible and safe online."   [eSchool News, April 19, 2017]

"The Traditional Classroom Works, So Why Change It?"

Posted April 17, 2017

"The traditional classroom works, so why change it?  This is something anyone involved in leading educational change hears at some stage.  The traditional classroom, where direct instruction is the primary method of teaching, does work.  It has worked for decades.  It has educated people who have then changed civilization in all areas; the sciences, politics, health, industry…everywhere.  However, to imply that it should not change assumes that we have reached the peak of educational techniques; that no major improvements are possible.  Just because the traditional classroom “works” doesn’t mean that it has reached a peak or an optimal level of effectiveness."  [eSchool News, February 23, 2017]

Music as the Brain's Universal Language

Posted February 10, 2017

Music is about communication. One of the main goals is to communicate some message of significance using sound. It’s an abstract form of communication, certainly not the same as speech or language, but it definitely involves the sharing of ideas and experience. Musicians naturally enter this form of musical conversation when they play together. And I wanted to get at this idea of music as a universal language and see what that might mean in the brain.    [Dana Foundation Publications, January 24, 2017]

Leveraging Ed Tech to Better Serve ELLs and Students with Disabilities

Posted February 8, 2017

Districts all over the country are finding ways to bring in Universal Design for Learning, ubiquitous tools like text-to-speech and new types of assistive technology that don’t carry a stigma of needing more help to students who use them.  A key element of the powerful potential of educational technology is its ability to offer tailored supports to students based on their particular needs [EducationDIVE, February 3, 2017].

Study Links Stuttering to Less Blood Flow in Brain

Posted February 3, 2017

Researchers examined MRI scans from 62 children and adults with and without stuttering and found that those who stuttered had lower blood flow to the brain's Broca's region, which is involved in word processing, than those without the speech disorder. The findings in Human Brain Mapping also showed even lower levels of blood flow to the brain area among those with more severe stuttering [HealthDay, January 6, 2017].

Special Education Teachers Want to Use Tech But Lack Training

Posted November 2, 2016

"Many teachers — special education and general education alike — are finding themselves adrift in a world of technology with little clarity on what to implement and how to implement it.  But what if there was a team of researchers dedicated to evaluating and recommending apps specific to special education needs and designing new apps to fill the needs that aren’t being met?  That’s exactly what the SpedApps project out of the Research Center for Educational Technology at Kent State University aims to do for special education teachers and students.  'Special education, and general education teachers, do value tech, but they just haven’t had sufficient training,' says Karl Kosko, an assistant professor at Kent State who works on the project."   [EdTech, October 2016]

Executive Functions in Children With Specific Language Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

Posted November 2, 2016

"Mounting evidence demonstrates deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI) beyond the linguistic domain. Using meta-analysis, this study examined differences in children with and without SLI on tasks measuring inhibition and cognitive flexibility."  [Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, October 2016]

10 Innovative Learning Stations That Get Students Reading

Posted November 2, 2016

Re-energize your student readers with these super-smart, tech-savvy learning stations.  "Whenever I would introduce a new novel to my students, I always got the same reaction: Students moaned and groaned about the storyline, expressed their lack of interest in the author’s writing style, and proclaimed their everlasting boredom with the class as a whole. In order to avoid student complaints, I decided to implement book clubs in my classroom—students now have the opportunity to work in groups and choose what book they as a group want to read for a given unit."   [Edutopia, October 27, 2016]

How a Happy School Can Help Students Succeed

Posted November 2, 2016

"Every day at Weiner Elementary School starts with a dance party, usually to Best Day of My Life by American Authors — and that's before the 7:50 a.m. bell even rings.  Then comes the morning assembly, where all 121 students and the staff gather for 20 minutes in the cafeteria of the school in Weiner, Ark.  They sing songs and learn about an artist, a musician and an international city of the week.  They celebrate birthdays. A lucky student is crowned Student of the Day.  And Pam Hogue makes it her goal to be an educator instead of a principal.  That assembly — and the many other things this school does to create a sense of community and happiness — is part of what experts call school climate."   [nprEd, November 1, 2016]

The Surprising Way to Protect Yourself from Burnout

Posted November 2, 2016

"People often think the demands of their jobs are the primary contributors to burnout. Interestingly, Christina Maslach, a psychology professor at the University of California, Berkeley, has found that poor relationships in the workplace -- incivility, passive-aggressive behavior, and bullying -- are often the real culprit."   [SmartBrief on EdTech, November 2, 2016]

A New Era of Assistive Technology for People with Disabilities

Posted November 2, 2016

"3D cameras have ushered in a new era of assistive technologies for people with disabilities. One such project, the Wheelie, allows users to control a wheelchair using only their facial expressions."   [Motherboard, October 31, 2016]

Electronic Baby Toys Associated with Decrease in Quality and Quantity of Language in Infants

Posted April 7, 2016

"Electronic toys for infants that produce lights, words and songs were associated with decreased quantity and quality of language compared to playing with books or traditional toys such as a wooden puzzle, a shape-sorter and a set of rubber blocks, according to an article published online by JAMA Pediatrics."  [Neuroscience News, December 15, 2015]

Mindfulness and School Culture

Posted March 31, 2016

"The MindUP curriculum is "a blend of neuroscience, social and emotional tenets like empathy and perspective taking, and mindfulness, a practice which many schools have already started exploring." A 15-lesson sequence "starts with explaining to students how their brains work and what’s happening when they are stressed, scared or angry. The program then moves into mindful breathing exercises, meant to help students feel present in their bodies. There’s a section on choosing to approach the world with optimism and discussions of mindfulness in all the senses: seeing, listening and eating. Towards the end of the sequence the lessons expand outward, asking students how they can contribute to the community, how they can be better citizens. Students practice doing random acts of kindness and reflect on how that makes them feel. Gratitude becomes a daily practice."   ["What Changes When a School Embraces Mindfulness," KQED News, March 30, 2016]


Be sure to watch the "Breakfast Club" video within the article.  There are also a couple of nice research links.

Opportunity for All? Technology and Learning in Lower-Income Families

Posted March 1, 2016

"The question of whether low- and moderate-income families have access to the Internet and digital devices remains a critical national issue. Families with no connectivity are tremendously disadvantaged in accessing a wide range of opportunities, especially as more and more resources and services move online. But access is no longer just a yes/no question. The quality of families’ Internet connections, and the kinds and capabilities of devices they can access, have considerable consequences for parents and children alike."  [Rideout, V. J. & Katz, V.S. (2016)


Also see News & Announcements page:  Low Cost Internet for Lower-Income Families with Children

The New Education Law and ASHA Members

Posted February 8, 2016

"School-based audiologists and speech-language pathologists are included in literacy efforts and have more professional development opportunities under a new federal law that governs K–12 education for four years beginning with the 2016–2017 school year.  The long-awaited passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) in December 2015 reauthorizes the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and replaces No Child Left Behind. ESSA returns much authority and decision-making on student testing and accountability for student progress to states and local school districts."  [from ASHA Leader, February 2016]

Difficulty Processing Speech May Be an Effect of Dyslexia, Not a Cause

Posted February 2, 2016

"The cognitive skills used to learn how to ride a bike may be the key to a more accurate understanding of developmental dyslexia. And they may lead to improved interventions. Carnegie Mellon University scientists investigated how procedural learning — how we acquire skills and habits such as riding a bike — impacts how individuals with dyslexia learn speech sound categories. Published in Cortex, Lori Holt and Yafit Gabay found for the first time that learning complex auditory categories through procedural learning is impaired in dyslexia. This means that difficulty processing speech may be an effect of dyslexia, not its cause."  [from HealthCanal, September 10, 2015]

Neurolinguistic Approach to Reading: A Guide for Speech-Language Pathologists Treating Dyslexia

Posted November 12, 2015

Neurolinguistic Approach to Reading: A Guide for Speech-Language Pathologists Treating Dyslexia aids speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in assessing and treating dyslexia through an approach proven effective by national standardized tests, subjective evaluation, parents, teachers, as well as those in the field. The author developed the Neurolinguistic Approach to Reading (NAR) based on more than 25 years of experience working with individuals with dyslexia. This inclusive approach is based on the complete communication process, oral and written. The text also includes the Cornell note-taking system and can be used as an effective clinical manual or a university reference.  This text comes at a crucial time as the scope of practice for speech-language pathology has greatly expanded with the increased recognition of the direct relationship between oral language and a child's ability to read and spell. Additionally, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has defined the SLP's role in the remediation of literacy disabilities such as dyslexia. Through this effective text and utilizing NAR as a treatment framework, SLPs in all work environments can be more involved in working with individuals with dyslexia.  [Text for sale from Plural Publishing, February 2015]

The Eight Components of Great Professional Development

Posted July 14, 2015

"Professional development is vital in any occupation, and nowhere more so than in teaching. But all too often it gets neglected or is more of a box-ticking exercise than any meaningful training.  But a new review has set out the eight core components that go into making continuing professional development (CPD) great – and their relevance goes way beyond teaching to provide a blueprint for training everywhere."   [from Forbes, June 10, 2015]

USPSTF: 'No' to Routine Speech Delay Screening in Preschoolers

Posted July 14, 2015

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) affirmed its 2006 recommendation of insufficient evidence (I statement) for routine screening for speech and language delay in children ages 5 and younger.  This was the final recommendation statement; the USPSTF previously released a draft recommendation in November 2014.  Albert L. Siu, MD, MPSH, and colleagues on behalf of the USPSTF, clarified their draft statement by noting that these recommendations only applied to asymptomatic children whose parents or clinicians do not have specific concerns about their speech, language, hearing, or development.  In the final recommendations in Pediatrics, they also noted that it only applies to screening in primary settings and does not evaluate screening for autism spectrum disorder (ASD).   [from MedPage Today, July 8, 2015]

When the Myth Is the Message: Neuromyths and Education

Posted February 5, 2015

Neuroeducation, a growing field bridging the gap between neuroscience and education, has been instrumental to bringing tested brain science research into the classroom—and offering data that has provided educators with new tools to develop novel classroom techniques (as well as challenge outdated pedagogical doctrine). But what happens when neuroscience findings are taken too far? Paul Howard-Jones, a researcher at the Centre for Mind and Brain in Educational and Social Contexts at Bristol University in the United Kingdom, cautions that neuromyths, or the “misconception generated by a misunderstanding, a misreading, or a misquoting of facts scientifically established by brain research to make a case for use of brain research in education or other contexts” are more pervasive in the educational field than we might think—and that these neuromyths may, ultimately, work against educational achievement.  [from the Dana Foundation, January 2015]

Fake Texting, Sleeping with Phones: 'Hyper-connected' Students Try to Get Real in Class

Posted November 5, 2014

Towson University in Maryland has launched a course called “Alone Together: Finding Intimacy in the Age of Facebook,” in which students are asked to examine how social media has affected their lives -- in both positive and negative ways. Among other things, students explore how the need to be connected has affected them socially and how the drive to get "likes" on social media has impacted their ability to communicate.  [from NBC News/Today, October 30, 2014]

Intervention Programs Target Students with Dyslexia

Posted November 5, 2014

More states are taking steps to meet the needs of students with dyslexia during the school day. Eighteen states have passed laws regarding dyslexia, according to Bright Solutions for Dyslexia. Federal lawmakers also are taking steps to raise awareness with House Resolution 456, which calls on schools to recognize the educational effects of the condition.  [from USA Today, October 30, 2014]

How to Fit Response to Intervention Into a Heavy Workload

Posted November 5, 2014

Speech-language pathologists have important roles and responsibilities in RTI frameworks. Speech-language pathology practice in schools has evolved to emphasize service delivery that is grounded in grade-level curriculum and the Common Core State Standards (2010). This focus on literacy and providing just-in-time assistance for students is emphasized in the ASHA document Roles and Responsibilities of Speech-Language Pathologists in Schools (2010) and is a natural fit for the specialized knowledge and skills of the school-based SLP.  [from ASHA Leader, August 30, 2011]

The Reading Brain in the Digital Age: The Science of Paper versus Screens

Posted November 4, 2014

E-readers and tablets are becoming more popular as such technologies improve, but research suggests that reading on paper still boasts unique advantages.  How exactly does the technology we use to read change the way we read?  How reading on screens differs from reading on paper is relevant not just to the youngest among us, but to just about everyone who reads—to anyone who routinely switches between working long hours in front of a computer at the office and leisurely reading paper magazines and books at home; to people who have embraced e-readers for their convenience and portability, but admit that for some reason they still prefer reading on paper; and to those who have already vowed to forgo tree pulp entirely.  As digital texts and technologies become more prevalent, we gain new and more mobile ways of reading—but are we still reading as attentively and thoroughly?  How do our brains respond differently to onscreen text than to words on paper? Should we be worried about dividing our attention between pixels and ink or is the validity of such concerns paper-thin?  [from Scientific American, April 11, 2013]

The Brain-Games Conundrum: Does Cognitive Training Really Sharpen the Mind?

Posted November 4, 2014

Few topics in the world of neuroscience evoke as much debate as the effectiveness of cognitive training.  Do you misplace your keys regularly?  Forget appointments?  Have trouble remembering names?  No worries.  A host of companies promise to “train” your brain with games designed to stave off mental decline.  Regardless of their effectiveness, their advertising has convinced tens of thousands of people to open their wallets.  As our authors review the research on cognitive-training products, they expose the science surrounding the benefits of brain games as sketchy at best. [from Cerebrum: The Dana Forum on Brain Science, November 2014]

Difference vs. Disorder: Understanding Speech and Language Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

Posted November 3, 2014

This text provides educators with information about many different languages.  Based on identification of the most common home languages in the U.S., the many linguistic differences of these languages in relation to English are explored.  Languages included are Arabic, Czech, Farsi, French, German, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese, as well as African-American English, which is a common dialect.  Available November 2014.  [from Bilinguistics, Inc.]

5 Tips from Dr. Temple Grandin

Posted October 13, 2014

Autism expert Dr. Temple Grandin is known for her practical, no-nonsense style. In a recent webinar sponsored by PresenceLearning, Dr. Grandin presented a number of ways educators and parents can help those on the spectrum to lead successful, independent lives.  [from Presence Learning, March 2013]

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